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Health Insights From 23andMe Ancestry DNA Data

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Your Personalized Guide to Good Nutrition based on your DNA data

Gene Nutrition Report

Report generated using data file:
"genomeMorganMillerv5Full20200921164145.txt"
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Table of Contents
  1. Tendency To Gain Weight
  2. Tendency To Overeat
  3. Tendency To Prefer Fatty Foods
  4. Tendency To Prefer Sweet Foods
  5. Tendency To Prefer Bitter Foods
  6. Carbohydrate Intake And Weight Gain Tendency
  7. Saturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency
  8. Mono Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency
  9. Poly Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency
  10. Protein Intake And Weight Loss Tendency
  11. Fibre Intake And Weight Loss Tendency
  12. Tendency To Regain Weight
  13. Vitamin A Needs
  14. Vitamin B12 Needs
  15. Vitamin B6 Needs
  16. Vitamin B9 Needs
  17. Vitamin C Needs
  18. Vitamin D Needs
  19. Vitamin E Needs
  20. Vitamin K Needs
  21. Calcium Needs
  22. Choline Needs
  23. Copper Needs
  24. Iron Needs
  25. Magnesium Needs
  26. Phosphate Needs
  27. Zinc Needs
  28. Selenium Needs
  29. Antioxidant Needs
  30. Caffeine Consumption
  31. Caffeine Metabolism
  32. Gluten Sensitivity
  33. Lactose Intolerance
  34. Salt Intake And Blood Pressure Sensitivity
  35. Riboflavin And Blood Pressure Response
  36. Alcohol Flush

Key Takeaways

Trait Your Outcome
Gluten Sensitivity Gluten insensitive: Unlikely to be gluten sensitive
Lactose Intolerance Tolerant: Less likely to be lactose intolerant
Alcohol Flush Moderate: Moderately likely to experience alcohol flush
Increase Intake of Vitamin B12, Vitamin K, Copper, Magnesium

Introduction

Have you ever wondered why certain people lose or gain more weight compared to others? And why some foods cause uneasiness in some people? Do you want to know which diet suits you best? The answer lies in your genes.

The way we fuel our bodies with the foods we eat are all impacted by our genetic make-up. The old adage you are what you eat plays a major role in determining our health and well-being. Food and its nutrients directly and indirectly influence our gene expressions. Genetic variations affecting certain metabolic traits in turn dictate dietary means and requirements. For instance, the response to food varies from individual to individual explaining why some people can eat as much as they want and not gain weight. These factors may be attributed to the large role that genes play in influencing eating behaviours and metabolism of different foods.

Some interesting facts about genes and nutrition:

  • Craig Maclean, the famous track cyclist and Olympics Gold medalist, and Novak Djokovic, the famous tennis player, were both diagnosed with Celiac disease (gluten intolerance) and owe their success to a gluten-free diet.
  • A study on weight management conducted by Stanford University found that people who eat and exercise according to their genetic predisposition tend to lose two-and-a-half times as much weight as compared to those who do not.
  • Approximately 74% of Native American, 90% of Asian Americans, 70% of African Americans and 53% of Mexican Americans are lactose intolerant. Research studies have also showed that there is a considerable reduction in lactase activity among people whose ancestry is from Greek, Italian, Arab, Asian, African, Hispanic or Jewish origin.
  • According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 43% of children and 38% of pregnant women suffer from iron deficiency, 1 in 6 women suffer from Vitamin A deficiency and 17.3% of the global population has Zinc deficiency.
  • Fast metabolizers of caffeine, who drank up to 3 cups of coffee per day, have almost 52% lower risk of heart attack as compared to slow metabolizers.

In this report, we profile genes that have been shown to influence nutritional traits like diet and weight management, micronutrient requirements, food intolerance and several other attributes relevant to nutritional well-being.

We hope that this report will help you understand your body better and to align your diet to your genetic type to get the best results.

About your report

Have you ever wondered why certain people lose or gain more weight compared to others? And why some foods cause uneasiness in some people? Do you want to know which diet suits you best? The answer lies in your genes.

The way we fuel our bodies with the foods we eat are all impacted by our genetic make-up. The old adage you are what you eat plays a major role in determining our health and well-being. Food and its nutrients directly and indirectly influence our gene expressions. Genetic variations affecting certain metabolic traits in turn dictate dietary means and requirements. For instance, the response to food varies from individual to individual explaining why some people can eat as much as they want and not gain weight. These factors may be attributed to the large role that genes play in influencing eating behaviours and metabolism of different foods.

Some interesting facts about genes and nutrition:

  • Craig Maclean, the famous track cyclist and Olympics Gold medalist, and Novak Djokovic, the famous tennis player, were both diagnosed with Celiac disease (gluten intolerance) and owe their success to a gluten-free diet.
  • A study on weight management conducted by Stanford University found that people who eat and exercise according to their genetic predisposition tend to lose two-and-a-half times as much weight as compared to those who do not.
  • Approximately 74% of Native American, 90% of Asian Americans, 70% of African Americans and 53% of Mexican Americans are lactose intolerant. Research studies have also showed that there is a considerable reduction in lactase activity among people whose ancestry is from Greek, Italian, Arab, Asian, African, Hispanic or Jewish origin.
  • According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 43% of children and 38% of pregnant women suffer from iron deficiency, 1 in 6 women suffer from Vitamin A deficiency and 17.3% of the global population has Zinc deficiency.
  • Fast metabolizers of caffeine, who drank up to 3 cups of coffee per day, have almost 52% lower risk of heart attack as compared to slow metabolizers.
  • In this report, we profile genes that have been shown to influence nutritional traits like diet and weight management, micronutrient requirements, food intolerance and several other attributes relevant to nutritional well-being.

We hope that this report will help you understand your body better and to align your diet to your genetic type to get the best results.

How to read your report

Human health is a complex interplay between genetics and the environment (lifestyle, diet, activity, stress and other factors). Your genes, training, diet and lifestyle, all play a vital role in your well-being.

This report is presented in a user friendly language and format. The following tips will help you get the best information value out of the report.

1. The word likely is used often in the report. What does it mean?

People generally know that high cholesterol can lead to heart conditions. However, there are individuals with high cholesterol who do not develop heart disease. Similarly, smoking can lead to lung disease, but not always. Hence, certain genetic parameters can lead to certain outcomes but other factors may modify the outcome. likely means, it is more likely that one will see the outcome, but other factors may modify it.

2. What does the term average mean in the report?

Average implies neither high nor low, rather an intermediate outcome. For example, average likelihood of weight gain is an intermediate level between high and low likelihood. Average can also be understood in the context of normal or typical or moderate

3. How do I know which result is applicable to me?

Only results with a check mark or are applicable to you, the others are not applicable. All possible outcomes are provided in the table to provide a context to your outcome.

4. Where did the information contained in the report come from?

The genetic markers that are used in this report are based on scientific studies published in international journals. A list of references is available for you to read on our web blog.

5. Some sentences are colored in green and others in red, why?

Attributes that are advantageous in nutritional well-being are indicated in green and those that are not advantageous are in red. Moderate or Neutral outcomes are indicated in black.

6. In the vitamins and Micro Nutrient section, what does normal intake indicate?

Normal intake refers to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of the specific vitamin or mineral.

Your Summary Results

Trait Name Your Result Outcomes
Tendency To Gain Weight

A genetic tendency for higher weight gain due to increased energy storage Learn more

Moderately likely to gain weight
Tendency To Overeat

A genetic tendency to over consume foods due to increased craving Learn more

Moderately likely to overeat
Tendency To Prefer Fatty Foods

A genetic tendency for lower fat taste perception and overconsumption of fatty foods Learn more

Highly likely to overconsume high fat foods
Tendency To Prefer Sweet Foods

A genetic tendency for lower sweet taste perception and overconsumption of sweet foods Learn more

Highly likely to overconsume sweet foods
Tendency To Prefer Bitter Foods

A genetic tendency for high bitter taste perception and low intake of bitter vegetables Learn more

Normal bitter vegetable preference
Carbohydrate Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

A genetic tendency for increased weight gain upon higher carb intake Learn more

Highly likely to gain weight on high carb intake
Saturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

A genetic tendency for higher weight gain upon higher sat fat intake Learn more

Less likely to gain weight on high SFA intake
Mono Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

A genetic tendency for weight gain upon higher MUFA intake Learn more

Highly likely to gain weight with high MUFA intake
Poly Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

A genetic tendency for weight gain upon higher PUFA intake Learn more

Highly likely to gain weight with high PUFA intake
Protein Intake And Weight Loss Tendency

A genetic tendency for increased weight loss upon higher protein intake Learn more

Highly likely to lose weight on high protein intake
Fibre Intake And Weight Loss Tendency

A genetic tendency for increased weight loss upon higher fibre intake Learn more

Likely to lose weight on high fibre intake
Tendency To Regain Weight

A genetic tendency for rapid weight regain after a weight loss program Learn more

Less likely to regain weight after weight loss
Vitamin A Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin A due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin A Learn more

Moderately increase vitamin A intake
Vitamin B12 Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin B12 due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin B12 Learn more

Significantly increase vitamin B12 intake
Vitamin B6 Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin B6 due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin B6 Learn more

Maintain normal Vitamin B6 intake
Vitamin B9 Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin B9 due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin B9 Learn more

Maintain normal Vitamin B9 intake
Vitamin C Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin C due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin C Learn more

Maintain normal Vitamin C intake
Vitamin D Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin D due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin D Learn more

Maintain normal Vitamin D intake
Vitamin E Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin E due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin E Learn more

Moderately increase vitamin E intake
Vitamin K Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin K due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin K Learn more

Significantly increase vitamin K intake
Calcium Needs

A genetic tendency to need more or less of Calcium due to differences in metabolism of Calcium Learn more

Maintain normal Calcium intake
Choline Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Choline due to inefficient metabolism of Choline Learn more

Moderately increase Choline intake
Copper Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Copper due to inefficient metabolism of Copper Learn more

Significantly increase Copper intake
Iron Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Iron due to inefficient metabolism of Iron Learn more

Moderately increase Iron intake
Magnesium Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Magnesium due to inefficient metabolism of Magnesium Learn more

Significantly increase Magnesium intake
Phosphate Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Phosphate due to inefficient metabolism of Phosphate Learn more

Maintain normal Phosphate intake
Zinc Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Zinc due to inefficient metabolism of Zinc Learn more

Moderately increase Zinc intake
Selenium Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Selenium due to inefficient metabolism of Selenium Learn more

Maintain normal Selenium intake
Antioxidant Needs

A genetic tendency to require more Antioxidants due to inefficient metabolism of Antioxidants Learn more

Moderately increase antioxidants intake
Caffeine Consumption

A genetic tendency for variation in caffeine consumption due to difference in preference Learn more

Likely to consume less caffeine
Caffeine Metabolism

A genetic tendency for variation in caffeine clearance due to varied metabolism Learn more

Likely to be a slow metabolizer of caffeine
Gluten Sensitivity

A genetic tendency for variation in response to gluten due to varied sensitivity Learn more

Unlikely to be gluten sensitive
Lactose Intolerance

A genetic tendency for difference in response to lactose due to varied tolerance Learn more

Less likely to be lactose intolerant
Salt Intake And Blood Pressure Sensitivity

A genetic tendency for lower blood pressure due to salt sensitivity Learn more

Highly likely to have lower BP on low salt diet
Riboflavin And Blood Pressure Response

A genetic tendency for lower blood pressure on increased riboflavin intake Learn more

Less likely to have lower BP on high Riboflavin intake
Alcohol Flush

A genetic tendency for variation in response to alcohol intake due to reduced clearance of acetaldehyde Learn more

Moderately likely to experience alcohol flush

Tendency To Gain Weight

Moderately likely to gain weight

People of certain genetic type have more of a tendency to gain weight than others due to their genetic makeup. Genes that regulate metabolic rate, energy expenditure and energy storage influence the tendency to store calories versus expending calories. Certain genes that once offered a survival advantage to our ancestors by storing calories for leaner times have now become liabilities in the age of surplus food availability. Your genetic profile influences the tendency of your body to store or expend more calories.

Recommendations:

  • You have a moderate genetic tendency to gain weight.
  • Ensure a healthy balance between energy intake and physical activity to maintain a healthy weight.
  • Genes Amalyzed: TMEM18, UCP2, PCSK1, GNPDA2, ADIPOQ, SH2B1, STK33, MC4R, LEP, MAF, NEGR1, ADRB1, SEC16B, BDNF, ADRB2, ETV5, UCP3, MTCH2, KCTD15, FTO, ADRB21

    Tendency To Overeat

    Moderately likely to overeat

    People of certain genetic type have more of a tendency to over consume foods. We analyze genes that are known to influence various hunger and satiety hormones such as Leptin, Ghrelin and Neuropeptides, which influence neurological aspects of feeding, producing effects such as persistent hunger, excessive snacking, preference for high calorific food and emotional eating.

    Recommendations:

    • You may have a moderate genetic tendency to overeat.
    • Practice mindful eating and eat high fibre or high protein snacks to increase feeling of fullness
    • Genes Amalyzed: TAS2R38, DRD2, FTO, CLOCK, MC4R

      Tendency To Prefer Fatty Foods

      Highly likely to overconsume high fat foods

      People of certain genetic type tend to over consume fatty foods due to a lower ability to perceive fats. In studies, people with lower fat perception ability were found to rate the fat content of food consistently lower than the actual fat content. Eating high quantities of fatty food can lead to weight gain and other health conditions.

      Recommendations:

      • You may have a decreased genetic ability to taste fats and are more likely to consume high fat foods.
      • Consciously reduce intake of high fat food, especially fried and oily foods.
      • Look for 0 g trans fat on the Nutrition Facts label and no oils in the ingredients list
      • Genes Amalyzed: CD361

        Tendency To Prefer Sweet Foods

        Highly likely to overconsume sweet foods

        People of certain genetic type tend to over consume sweet foods due to low sensitivity to sweet taste, either due to lesser number or reduced sensitivity of sweet taste receptors on their tongue. Sugary foods are rich in calories and can cause insulin resistance, leading to weight gain and other health conditions.

        Recommendations:

        • You may have decreased genetic sweet taste sensitivity and are more likely to consume sweets.
        • Consciously reduce intake of sweets.
        • High sugar intake increases risk for obesity and diabetes.
        • Snack on dry fruits, fruits and green leafy vegetables to reduce sugar cravings.
        • Drink plenty of water.
        • Genes Amalyzed: TAS2R38, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, TAS2R381, TAS1R31, TAS2R382, TAS1R21, GLUT2

          Tendency To Prefer Bitter Foods

          Normal bitter vegetable preference

          Bitter taste perception is due to genetic variations in taste receptors. When food is chewed in the mouth, molecules such as phenylthiocarbamide bind to the taste receptors present in the tongue, which gives rise to the bitter taste. People of certain genetic type tend to avoid bitter vegetables due to higher sensitivity to bitter taste. Vegetables are low calorie and high fibre foods, which help in weight management and have several health benefits.

          Recommendations:

          • You may have a genetic tendency to prefer bitter vegetables which could be due to moderate sensitivity to bitter taste.
          • Add natural sweeteners, lemon juice or spices to flavor bitter tasting green leafy vegetables, be creative with vegetable preparations.
          • Bitter foods help absorb nutrients,reduce sugar cravings and balance appetite.
          • Eat vegetables and fruits of different colors
          • Genes Amalyzed: TAS2R38, TAS2R382, TAS2R381

            Carbohydrate Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

            Highly likely to gain weight on high carb intake

            Carbohydrates are the main sources of energy and they provide the kilocalories for weight maintenance. 45-65% of total calories are the recommended intake of carbohydrates with starch and sugars being the major carbohydrates. Corn, rice, potatoes, pasta and breads are sources of starch. Fruits and fruit juices have natural sugars while desserts, candies and soft drinks have added sugar. Carbs are considered as weight increasing foods, but that's not true for everyone. People of certain genetic type tend to gain more weight upon consuming carbohydrate rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by reducing the amount of carbs in their diet. Eat a balanced diet. Choose complex carbohydrates such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grain.

            Recommendations:

            • You may have a high genetic risk for weight gain on a high carbohydrate diet.
            • Keep a limit on the amount of carbohydrates (<60%) (and fat) you consume.
            • Avoid white rice & flour; avoid packaged, sugary drinks; avoid sweets as they significantly increase calorie intake
            • Genes Amalyzed: FTO, SEC16B, FLJ35779, TCF7L2, LRRN6C, FAIM2, RBJ, FTO1

              Saturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

              Less likely to gain weight on high SFA intake

              Saturated fats are a type of fat that are largely solid at room temperature as they are saturated with hydrogen molecules. Meat and dairy products are rich sources of saturated fats. A high intake of saturated fats is associated with an increase in LDL cholesterol levels in the body. The American Heart Association recommends no more than 5-6% of calories from saturated fat from the daily diet. People of certain genetic type tend to gain more weight upon consuming saturated fat rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by reducing the amount of saturated fats in their diets

              Recommendations:

              • You may have a genetic tendency to have a lower BMI on a high fat diet.
              • Limit the consumption of saturated fat sources in the diet (butter, ghee, lard, margarine) Choose low fat, non-fried dishes when dining out.
              • Choose baked or steamed or grilled method of cooking
              • Genes Amalyzed: APOA2, FTO

                Mono Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                Highly likely to gain weight with high MUFA intake

                Monounsaturated fatty acids include omega-7 and omega 9 fatty acids. They are associated with anti-inflammatory properties, lowering blood pressure, maintaining triglyceride levels. MUFAs are also found to benefit skin health as they balance water levels and provide ceramides for skin renewal. The Mediterranean diet is rich in MUFA. People of certain genetic type tend to gain weight upon consuming MUFA rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by balancing the amount of MUFA in their diets. Given that MUFA is beneficial for overall health and particularly heart health, individuals with the weight gain genotype can increase the amount of exercise to compensate for the increased risk of weight gain.

                Recommendations:

                • You may have a genetic tendency for higher BMI on a high MUFA diet.
                • Include MUFA rich food sources in moderation.
                • Olive oil, avocado, olives, almonds, peanuts are rich in MUFA.
                • Though a diet rich in MUFA might not help in weight maintenance, it is recommended to include MUFA rich foods in the diet to improve heart health.
                • Weight gain can be prevented by increasing physical activity
                • Genes Amalyzed: NR1D1, PPARG, ADIPOQ

                  Poly Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                  Highly likely to gain weight with high PUFA intake

                  Omega 3s are important for brain and heart health as they reduce blood pressure and triglyceride levels. They are also important for skin and vision health. Omega 6s help in bone health and in stimulating hair growth. People of certain genetic type tend to gain weight upon consuming PUFA rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by lowering the amount of PUFA in their diets or increasing physical activity. Importantly, targeting the Omega3: Omega6 ratio is recommended, with preference towards Omega 3.

                  Recommendations:

                  • You may have a genetic tendency for higher BMI on a high PUFA diet.
                  • Include PUFA rich food sources in moderation.
                  • Grapeseed oil, canola oil, soybean oil, chia seeds, tuna and mackerel are rich in PUFA.
                  • Though a diet rich in PUFA might not help in weight maintenance, it is recommended to include Omega3 rich foods in the diet to improve heart health.
                  • Weight gain can be prevented by increasing physical activity
                  • Genes Amalyzed: BDNF

                    Protein Intake And Weight Loss Tendency

                    Highly likely to lose weight on high protein intake

                    Protein is an important building block for bones, skin, blood, cartilage and muscles, and it is present in every cell in the body. Nails, hair, enzymes, hormones and other body chemicals consist of large amounts of protein. Moreover, our body utilises protein to build and repair tissues. People of certain genetic type tend to benefit more in terms of weight maintenance with high protein intake than others

                    Recommendations:

                    • You may have a genetic tendency to lose more weight on a high protein diet.
                    • Eat a diet rich in proteins.
                    • Include proteins in diet (eggs, chicken breast, tuna, cottage cheese, greek yogurt, almonds, oats, broccoli, quinoa) as they are highly satiating, leading to reduced hunger and appetite
                    • Genes Amalyzed: FTO

                      Fibre Intake And Weight Loss Tendency

                      Likely to lose weight on high fibre intake

                      Dietary fiber is found in whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes. It helps relieve constipation or prevent it while also helping in weight maintenance, reducing the risk for heart disease and diabetes. People of certain genetic type tend to benefit more in terms of weight loss with high fiber intake than others.

                      Recommendations:

                      • You may have a genetic tendency to lose moderate weight on a high fibre diet.
                      • Fibre rich food can result in weight loss by increasing the feeling of fullness thus leading to reduced calorie intake.
                      • Pear, apple, banana, carrot, beetroot, broccoli, lentils, chickpeas, oats and almonds are examples of fibre rich foods
                      • Genes Amalyzed: FTO2, FTO1, FTO3

                        Tendency To Regain Weight

                        Less likely to regain weight after weight loss

                        People of certain genetic type tend to quickly regain weight after having been on a weight loss program. These individuals need to continue adherence to exercise and diet program to maintain optimal weight.

                        Recommendations:

                        • You may have a genetic tendency for lower regain of weight after an interventional strategy.
                        • Though you have a low genetic tendency to regain weight, your lifestyle factors could contribute to weight regain.
                        • Do not skip breakfast as a good breakfast curbs hunger.
                        • Avoid processed food and sugar sweetened beverages.
                        • Maintain a balanced diet and include more of whole grains, nuts, fruits and vegetables to your diet.
                        • Genes Amalyzed: BDNF, PPARG, TFAP2B, ADIPOQ

                          Vitamin A Needs

                          Moderately increase vitamin A intake

                          Vitamin A is required for clear vision, healthy skin and enhanced immunity. Animal sources provide Vitamin A in the form of retinol, while some plant sources provide the precursor of Vitamin A in the form of carotenes, which in turn must be converted to retinol. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin A in their diet due to less efficient conversion of carotenoids to retinol.

                          Recommendations:

                          • You may have a genetic tendency to have moderately low vitamin A levels.
                          • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin A.
                          • Measure serum Vitamin A level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                          • Include carrots, sweet potato, pumpkin, green leafy vegetables, parsley, basil, coriander, milk, fish and bell peppers in daily diet
                          • Genes Amalyzed: BCM01, BCMO1, CYP26B1, PKD1L2

                            Vitamin B12 Needs

                            Significantly increase vitamin B12 intake

                            Vitamin B12 is actively involved in red blood cell maturity and its deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia and general fatigue. It also helps in the removal of homocysteine from the cells. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B12 in their diet due to lower levels in the body.

                            Recommendations:

                            • You may have a genetic tendency for low vitamin B12 levels.
                            • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin B12.
                            • Measure serum Vitamin B12 level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                            • Vitamin B12 rich foods include fish and seafood.
                            • Also seaweed, eggs, poultry, meat and dairy products provide this nutrient
                            • Genes Amalyzed: TCN1, RASIP1, FUT2

                              Vitamin B6 Needs

                              Maintain normal Vitamin B6 intake

                              Vitamin B6 is required for the proper utilization of sugars, fats and proteins in the body. It also protects the cells against glycation-induced damage. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B6 in their diet as they lack the ability to fully metabolize this vitamin leading to its low levels in the body.

                              Recommendations:

                              • You may have a genetic tendency for normal vitamin B6 levels.
                              • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin B6.
                              • Measure serum Vitamin B6 level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                              • Vitamin B6 rich foods include whole grain products, nuts and seeds, fish, pork and meat
                              • Genes Amalyzed: ALPL1, NBPF3

                                Vitamin B9 Needs

                                Maintain normal Vitamin B9 intake

                                Vitamin B9 or folate plays a major role in DNA synthesis and repair. It is also essential for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Excess accumulation of homocysteine can be harmful. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B9 in their diet due to lower folate levels and an inefficient enzymatic conversion of homocysteine to methionine.

                                Recommendations:

                                • You may have a genetic tendency for normal vitamin B9 levels.
                                • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin B9.
                                • Measure serum Vitamin B9 level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                • Vitamin B9 rich foods include green leafy vegetables, dark coloured fruits (such as oranges, peaches, broccoli, papaya, grapefruit, strawberries, beans, peas, lentils, avocados, okra, sunflower seeds, peanuts, flaxseeds, almonds, cauliflower, corn, celery, carrots and fortified grains)
                                • Genes Amalyzed: MTHFR

                                  Vitamin C Needs

                                  Maintain normal Vitamin C intake

                                  Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant and is essential for enhanced immunity. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin C in their diet due to lower levels in the body.

                                  Recommendations:

                                  • You may have a genetic tendency for normal vitamin C levels.
                                  • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin C.
                                  • Measure serum Vitamin C level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                  • Vitamin C rich foods include agathi, cabbage, coriander leaves, drumstick leaves, capsicum, guava, green chillies, orange and broccoli
                                  • Genes Amalyzed: SLC23A1

                                    Vitamin D Needs

                                    Maintain normal Vitamin D intake

                                    Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium from the intestine and also for enhanced immunity. Our body can synthesize sufficient Vitamin D from cholesterol when the skin is exposed to adequate amounts of sunlight. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin D in their diet due to its inefficient synthesis in our body.

                                    Recommendations:

                                    • You may have a genetic tendency for normal vitamin D levels.
                                    • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin D.
                                    • Include calcium rich foods in the diet to improve absorption of vitamin D.
                                    • Measure serum Vitamin D level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                    • Calcium rich food sources are chia seeds, beans, lentils, almonds, spinach, tofu, milk & milk products, eggs and mushrooms and finger millets.
                                    • Genes Amalyzed: GC, GC2, CYP27B1, CYP2R1, NADSYN1, VDR, GC1

                                      Vitamin E Needs

                                      Moderately increase vitamin E intake

                                      Vitamin E is an antioxidant and it defends our body against free radical damage and protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin E in their diet due to inefficient transport and lower plasma levels of Vitamin E.

                                      Recommendations:

                                      • You may have a genetic tendency for moderately low vitamin E levels.
                                      • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin E.
                                      • Measure serum Vitamin E level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                      • Sunflower seeds, olive oil, wheat germ oil, spinach, avocados, almonds, broccoli and shrimps are rich in vitamin E
                                      • Genes Amalyzed: CYP4F2, CD36, intergenic, CD362, CD361, SCARB1, ZPR1

                                        Vitamin K Needs

                                        Significantly increase vitamin K intake

                                        Vitamin K plays an important role in helping blood clotting process and in preventing excessive bleeding. People of certain genetic type need enhanced Vitamin K supplementation to maintain adequate levels in blood.

                                        Recommendations:

                                        • You may have a genetic tendency for low vitamin K levels.
                                        • Meet your daily requirements for vitamin K.
                                        • Measure serum vitamin K level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                        • Vitamin K rich foods include Brussels sprouts, cabbage, prunes, spring onions and green leafy vegetables.
                                        • Genes Amalyzed: GGCX, VKORC1

                                          Calcium Needs

                                          Maintain normal Calcium intake

                                          Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, essential for maintaining the strength and structure of bones and teeth and certain metabolic functions. Both higher and lower calcium levels can have important consequences for health. People of certain genetic type tend to have higher serum calcium levels and can restrict their calcium intake.

                                          Recommendations:

                                          • You may have a genetic tendency for normal calcium levels.
                                          • Meet your daily requirements for Calcium (1300mg per day)Measure serum calcium level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                          • For adults between 19 and 50 years of age, calcium intake should not exceed 2500mg per day.
                                          • For adults older than 50 years, calcium intake should not exceed 2000 mg per day.
                                          • Include calcium rich foods such as amaranth leaves, almonds, mustard seeds, sunflower seeds, finger millets, sesame seeds, broccoli and dairy (subject to lactose tolerance recommendation)
                                          • Genes Amalyzed: DGKD, TTC39B, DGKD1, CASR1, GCKR, CYP24A1, CASR, WDR81, DGKH, GATA3, CARS

                                            Choline Needs

                                            Moderately increase Choline intake

                                            Choline is a macronutrient which plays an important role in liver function, nerve function, normal brain development, muscle movement and in supporting a healthy metabolism. People with a genetic variant in the PEMT gene and other genes are likely to experience adverse health consequences when fed a low choline diet. Hence supplementation is recommended for such individuals.

                                            Recommendations:

                                            • You may have a genetic tendency for moderately low choline levels.
                                            • Meet your daily requirements for choline.
                                            • Measure serum choline level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                            • Choline rich foods include eggs, liver, meat, pasta and shellfish.
                                            • Genes Amalyzed: MTHFD1, PEMT

                                              Copper Needs

                                              Significantly increase Copper intake

                                              Copper is necessary for the absorption of iron, in the synthesis of haemoglobin and in the maintenance of connective tissue, brain, heart and other organs. People of certain genetic types need more copper.

                                              Recommendations:

                                              • You may have a genetic tendency for low copper levels.
                                              • Meet your daily requirements for copper.
                                              • Measure serum copper level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                              • Copper rich foods include sunflower seeds, almonds, dried apricots, dark chocolates and lentils.
                                              • Genes Amalyzed: SELENBP1, SMIM1

                                                Iron Needs

                                                Moderately increase Iron intake

                                                Iron is essential for oxygen transport through the blood. Its deficiency leads to anemia. People of certain genetic type need more iron in their diet as they have reduced ability to absorb iron from the diet.

                                                Recommendations:

                                                • You may have a genetic tendency for moderately low iron levels.
                                                • Meet your daily requirements for iron.
                                                • Men should consume 8 mg per day, women between 19 and 50 years should consume 18 mg per day and women over 50 years should consume 5 mg per day.
                                                • Measure serum iron level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                • Iron rich foods include amaranth leaves, spinach, beans, lentils, chickpeas, peas, soybeans, liver, turkey, pumpkin seeds, broccoli, tofu and dark chocolate
                                                • Genes Amalyzed: TF, SLC17A1, TMPRRS6, TMPRRS61, TFR2

                                                  Magnesium Needs

                                                  Significantly increase Magnesium intake

                                                  Magnesium helps in maintaining normal nerve and muscle function and helps maintain strong bones. It is also important for regulating blood glucose levels and in the production of energy and amino acids.

                                                  Recommendations:

                                                  • You may have a genetic tendency for low magnesium levels.
                                                  • Meet your daily requirements for magnesium.
                                                  • Measure serum magnesium level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                  • Magnesium rich foods include dark leafy greens, nuts, fish, whole grains, avocados and yogurt.
                                                  • Genes Amalyzed: DCDC5, MUC1, MDS1, SHROOM3, HOXD9, CASR

                                                    Phosphate Needs

                                                    Maintain normal Phosphate intake

                                                    Phosphate is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth and is also used as a building block for several important molecules including DNA. People of certain genetic type need more phosphate in their diet as they have decreased phosphate levels in blood.

                                                    Recommendations:

                                                    • You may have a genetic tendency for normal phosphate levels.
                                                    • Meet your daily requirements for phosphate.
                                                    • Measure serum phosphate level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                    • Phosphate rich foods include pumpkin seeds, brazil nuts, salmons and shellfish
                                                    • Genes Amalyzed: TKT, CASR

                                                      Zinc Needs

                                                      Moderately increase Zinc intake

                                                      Zinc plays an important role in the proper functioning of the immune system, cell division, cell growth and in the breakdown of carbohydrates. Zinc is also important for the senses of taste and smell.

                                                      Recommendations:

                                                      • You may have a genetic tendency for moderately low zinc levels.
                                                      • Meet your daily requirements for zinc.
                                                      • Measure serum zinc level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                      • Zinc rich foods include flax seeds, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, watermelon seeds and beef
                                                      • Genes Amalyzed: Il6, NBDY, CA1

                                                        Selenium Needs

                                                        Maintain normal Selenium intake

                                                        Selenium helps in the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and in maintaining a healthy immune system. People of certain genetic type may benefit from selenium supplementation.

                                                        Recommendations:

                                                        • You may have a genetic tendency for normal selenium levels.
                                                        • Meet your daily requirements for selenium.
                                                        • Measure serum selenium level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                        • Selenium rich foods brazil nuts, yellow fin tuna, turkey, chicken, white button mushrooms and brown rice.
                                                        • Genes Amalyzed: CBS

                                                          Antioxidant Needs

                                                          Moderately increase antioxidants intake

                                                          Antioxidants play a key role in reducing the ill effects of 'free radicals' and thereby preventing premature aging, tissue damage and the onset of chronic diseases. They are present in many vegetables, fruits, cereals, green tea, etc. People of certain genetic type have lower efficiency to defend themselves against free radical damage and hence require more antioxidants in their diet.

                                                          Recommendations:

                                                          • You may have a genetic tendency to require moderately more antioxidants.
                                                          • Increase intake of foods rich in antioxidants.
                                                          • Optimum level of antioxidants reduces mortality risk.
                                                          • Foods rich in antioxidants are purple, red and blue grapes, blueberries, nuts, green leafy vegetables, sweet potato, carrots, whole grains and beans
                                                          • Genes Amalyzed: GPX1, PON11, NAT1, SOD2, CAT, PON1

                                                            Caffeine Consumption

                                                            Likely to consume less caffeine

                                                            People of certain genetic type tend to consume more cups of coffee (>625mg of caffeine) a day. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and the most widely consumed psychoactive drug. Increased coffee consumption has been linked to improved health benefits for fast metabolizers of caffeine. Slow metabolizers are prone to increased risk of heart disease with higher caffeine intake.

                                                            Recommendations:

                                                            • You have a genetic tendency to consume less caffeine.
                                                            • Genes Amalyzed: EFCAB5, ABCG2, AHR, CYP1A2, CYP1A1, MLXIPL, GKCR, BDNF, AHR1

                                                              Caffeine Metabolism

                                                              Likely to be a slow metabolizer of caffeine

                                                              People of certain genetic type are slow metabolizers of caffeine and may experience symptoms such as palpitations and anxiety upon consuming more than 1 to 2 cups of coffee a day. These individuals may also be at a higher risk of heart disease with increased coffee intake.

                                                              Recommendations:

                                                              • You have a genetic tendency to be a slow metabolizer.
                                                              • Restrict coffee intake up to 2 cups a day.
                                                              • Choose decaffeinated coffee and other low caffeine beverages.
                                                              • May be at higher risk of heart attack when more than 2 cups of coffee are consumed everyday.
                                                              • Drink green tea instead.
                                                              • Caffeine is present in coffee, energy drinks, in colas and a variety of other foods and beverages.
                                                              • Genes Amalyzed: CYP1A2

                                                                Gluten Sensitivity

                                                                Unlikely to be gluten sensitive

                                                                People of certain genetic type may have lower tolerance to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. Some people experience symptoms like abdominal cramps, bloating, �foggy mind�, depression, headaches, pain in the bone or joint, diarrhea or constipation and chronic fatigue when they have gluten in their diet but may not test positive for serological determination of celiac disease. When gluten is removed from their diet, these symptoms subside, this condition is known as gluten sensitivity. In some cases (~1% of western population), it may lead to celiac disease.

                                                                Recommendations:

                                                                • You do not carry the genetic markers associated with gluten sensitivity.
                                                                • Unless advised by your physician, you can continue regular consumption of gluten based products
                                                                • Genes Amalyzed: HLA DQ2.2 (M2), HLA DQ 8, HLA DQ2.2 (M3), HLA-DQ 2.5, HLA DQ2.2 (M1)

                                                                  Lactose Intolerance

                                                                  Less likely to be lactose intolerant

                                                                  People of certain genetic type stop producing the enzyme lactase in late childhood. Lactase is needed to breakdown the sugar lactose present in milk. These individuals may experience gastrointestinal symptoms upon consuming large quantities of milk as adults.

                                                                  Recommendations:

                                                                  • You are less likely to be lactose intolerant.
                                                                  • Include dairy products in the diet.
                                                                  • Include milk and other dairy products as sources of calcium, vitamin D and milk protein
                                                                  • Genes Amalyzed: MCM6

                                                                    Salt Intake And Blood Pressure Sensitivity

                                                                    Highly likely to have lower BP on low salt diet

                                                                    Sodium is an essential electrolyte present in the extra cellular fluid. It regulates osmosis and maintains fluid levels within the cell and it also plays an important role in enzyme functions and contraction of muscles. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends not more than 2300 mg of salt per day; however, most people eat too much salt. On an average 3400 mg of salt is consumed with most of it coming from processed foods. People of certain genetic type will have higher blood pressure in response to high salt consumption. Nearly 50% of hypertensive people are salt-sensitive, which is associated with a rise in BP with salt intake. These individuals will tend to reduce BP with lower salt intake, which is recommended.

                                                                    Recommendations:

                                                                    • People with your genetic type show a greater reduction in blood pressure levels on a low salt diet.
                                                                    • Reduce salt intake to about a teaspoon of salt per day.
                                                                    • Limit high salt content food (canned, processed, baked, salt-dried and pickled foods).
                                                                    • Even sweet tasting food can have high salt content, check the food labels carefully.
                                                                    • Consider adding spices and herbs such as oregano, rosemary, mint, parsley, garlic and ginger for favour instead of salt.
                                                                    • Potassium rich foods (banana, sweet potato, spinach, apple, orange, cabbage) help regulate blood pressure.
                                                                    • Genes Amalyzed: ACE, NPPA, CYP11B2, AGT, SGK1

                                                                      Riboflavin And Blood Pressure Response

                                                                      Less likely to have lower BP on high Riboflavin intake

                                                                      Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a water soluble vitamin. Nerves and brain need riboflavin to function properly. It is also required for healthy skin, hair, eyes and liver. people of certain genetic types will have lower blood pressure in response to high riboflavin intake.

                                                                      Recommendations:

                                                                      • You have a genetic tendency to have no effect on blood pressure on increased intake of riboflavin.
                                                                      • Though blood pressure levels are not affected by increasing intake of riboflavin, its deficiency can lead to symptoms like burning mouth, angular cheilitis, anemia, and vision problem.
                                                                      • Include foods rich in riboflavin like eggs, liver, dairy products and enriched flour in your diet to ensure optimum level of vitamin B2 in the body.
                                                                      • Genes Amalyzed: MTHFR

                                                                        Alcohol Flush

                                                                        Moderately likely to experience alcohol flush

                                                                        People of certain genetic type may experience symptoms like redness of the face and neck upon consuming alcohol due to reduced clearance of acetaldehyde which is produced in the body upon consuming alcohol. Though alcohol avoidance per limitation is recommended for all, people with the alcohol flush genotype may be at higher health risk upon alcohol consumption

                                                                        Recommendations:

                                                                        • you have a moderate genetic tendency to experience alcohol flush.
                                                                        • Reduce or limit alcohol consumption.
                                                                        • A study showed that if moderate to heavy drinkers shifted to light drinking, 53% of esophageal cancers might be prevented.
                                                                        • Intake of anti-histamines prior to alcohol consumption has been shown to lower flushing symptoms.
                                                                        • Genes Amalyzed: ALDH2

                                                                          Disclaimer

                                                                          Xcode provides genetic assessment services for informational use only and Xcode's reports should be interpreted or used exclusively by professional practitioners including but not limited to certified physicians, dietitians, nutritionists, sports therapists and others in similar profession (Professional Practitioners). Xcode does not provide any direct or indirect medical advice to individual patients and this report is to be interpreted only by a qualified medical or health services professional in order to provide relevant healthcare advice.

                                                                          Genetic information must always be considered in conjunction with other information about your health such as lifestyle, family history, risk factors, biomedical data, diet, nutrition and physical activity among several other factors. Gene mutation is not the only factor that influences the health conditions or outcomes and there are several factors other than your genes such as the environment and lifestyle that may influence your health outcome. You are responsible to ascertain that your Professional Practitioner is qualified to consider the genetic information indicated in this report in conjunction with all other information made available to him/her about you including your family health history, lifestyle, bio-medical data and any other information that you may provide to the Professional Practitioner. Xcode shall not be held responsible for any misinterpretation by your Professional Practitioner of this Report or for any matter arising out of this report.

                                                                          Only full genome sequences are exhaustive. All other forms of genetic tests only provide a limited subset of genetic information that has been found to be relevant to specific conditions. Since this report is not generated by conducting a whole genome sequence test, the results reported are limited to a specific set of mutations known to be associated with specific conditions. Genetic information is also subject to revisions based on the latest advances in scientific research. Therefore, it is possible that the interpretation of results reported herein may vary or be altered subject to ongoing research. Sometimes, the interpretations may vary from company to company based on which studies are being given a higher preference compared to others.

                                                                          Xcode's role is limited to providing results of genetic test and providing a broad set of general recommendations. More detailed recommendations that may be specific to you are to be made by a qualified Professional Practitioners only. General guidelines provided in our report are for information purpose only and strictly not for medical or clinical use. While assessing your genetic parameters and providing the report and recommendations, we do not consider your past or existing health conditions and or any medication taken by you (either in the past or currently), even if you have provided us with such information. Our report and the recommendations therein are to be acted upon only under the advice and supervision of a qualified medical or health and wellness professional practitioner.

                                                                          Your reliance upon the report is solely at your own discretion. As with all health and medical related matters, you should exercise adequate care in using the information provided in this report or on our website. Xcode disclaims any responsibility for any errors and/or omissions by you or other persons either during collection of DNA samples or delivery of the DNA sample to Xcode. We make no warranties of any kind, either express or implied, including, without limitation, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, accuracy and non- infringement. The information in this report is for informational purposes only, and not for medical or clinical use

                                                                          Your Personalized Guide to Good Nutrition based on your DNA data

                                                                          Gene Nutrition Report

                                                                          Report generated using data file:
                                                                          "genomeMorganMillerv5Full20200921164145.txt"

                                                                          xcode.life

                                                                          www.xcode.life

                                                                          Table of Contents
                                                                          1. Tendency To Gain Weight
                                                                          2. Tendency To Overeat
                                                                          3. Tendency To Prefer Fatty Foods
                                                                          4. Tendency To Prefer Sweet Foods
                                                                          5. Tendency To Prefer Bitter Foods
                                                                          6. Carbohydrate Intake And Weight Gain Tendency
                                                                          7. Saturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency
                                                                          8. Mono Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency
                                                                          9. Poly Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency
                                                                          10. Protein Intake And Weight Loss Tendency
                                                                          11. Fibre Intake And Weight Loss Tendency
                                                                          12. Tendency To Regain Weight
                                                                          13. Vitamin A Needs
                                                                          14. Vitamin B12 Needs
                                                                          15. Vitamin B6 Needs
                                                                          16. Vitamin B9 Needs
                                                                          17. Vitamin C Needs
                                                                          18. Vitamin D Needs
                                                                          19. Vitamin E Needs
                                                                          20. Vitamin K Needs
                                                                          21. Calcium Needs
                                                                          22. Choline Needs
                                                                          23. Copper Needs
                                                                          24. Iron Needs
                                                                          25. Magnesium Needs
                                                                          26. Phosphate Needs
                                                                          27. Zinc Needs
                                                                          28. Selenium Needs
                                                                          29. Antioxidant Needs
                                                                          30. Caffeine Consumption
                                                                          31. Caffeine Metabolism
                                                                          32. Gluten Sensitivity
                                                                          33. Lactose Intolerance
                                                                          34. Salt Intake And Blood Pressure Sensitivity
                                                                          35. Riboflavin And Blood Pressure Response
                                                                          36. Alcohol Flush

                                                                          Key Takeaways

                                                                          Trait Your Outcome
                                                                          Gluten Sensitivity Gluten insensitive: Unlikely to be gluten sensitive
                                                                          Lactose Intolerance Tolerant: Less likely to be lactose intolerant
                                                                          Alcohol Flush Moderate: Moderately likely to experience alcohol flush
                                                                          Increase Intake of Vitamin B12, Vitamin K, Copper, Magnesium

                                                                          Introduction

                                                                          Have you ever wondered why certain people lose or gain more weight compared to others? And why some foods cause uneasiness in some people? Do you want to know which diet suits you best? The answer lies in your genes.

                                                                          The way we fuel our bodies with the foods we eat are all impacted by our genetic make-up. The old adage you are what you eat plays a major role in determining our health and well-being. Food and its nutrients directly and indirectly influence our gene expressions. Genetic variations affecting certain metabolic traits in turn dictate dietary means and requirements. For instance, the response to food varies from individual to individual explaining why some people can eat as much as they want and not gain weight. These factors may be attributed to the large role that genes play in influencing eating behaviours and metabolism of different foods.

                                                                          Some interesting facts about genes and nutrition:

                                                                          • Craig Maclean, the famous track cyclist and Olympics Gold medalist, and Novak Djokovic, the famous tennis player, were both diagnosed with Celiac disease (gluten intolerance) and owe their success to a gluten-free diet.
                                                                          • A study on weight management conducted by Stanford University found that people who eat and exercise according to their genetic predisposition tend to lose two-and-a-half times as much weight as compared to those who do not.
                                                                          • Approximately 74% of Native American, 90% of Asian Americans, 70% of African Americans and 53% of Mexican Americans are lactose intolerant. Research studies have also showed that there is a considerable reduction in lactase activity among people whose ancestry is from Greek, Italian, Arab, Asian, African, Hispanic or Jewish origin.
                                                                          • According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 43% of children and 38% of pregnant women suffer from iron deficiency, 1 in 6 women suffer from Vitamin A deficiency and 17.3% of the global population has Zinc deficiency.
                                                                          • Fast metabolizers of caffeine, who drank up to 3 cups of coffee per day, have almost 52% lower risk of heart attack as compared to slow metabolizers.

                                                                          In this report, we profile genes that have been shown to influence nutritional traits like diet and weight management, micronutrient requirements, food intolerance and several other attributes relevant to nutritional well-being.

                                                                          We hope that this report will help you understand your body better and to align your diet to your genetic type to get the best results.

                                                                          About your report

                                                                          Have you ever wondered why certain people lose or gain more weight compared to others? And why some foods cause uneasiness in some people? Do you want to know which diet suits you best? The answer lies in your genes.

                                                                          The way we fuel our bodies with the foods we eat are all impacted by our genetic make-up. The old adage you are what you eat plays a major role in determining our health and well-being. Food and its nutrients directly and indirectly influence our gene expressions. Genetic variations affecting certain metabolic traits in turn dictate dietary means and requirements. For instance, the response to food varies from individual to individual explaining why some people can eat as much as they want and not gain weight. These factors may be attributed to the large role that genes play in influencing eating behaviours and metabolism of different foods.

                                                                          Some interesting facts about genes and nutrition:

                                                                          • Craig Maclean, the famous track cyclist and Olympics Gold medalist, and Novak Djokovic, the famous tennis player, were both diagnosed with Celiac disease (gluten intolerance) and owe their success to a gluten-free diet.
                                                                          • A study on weight management conducted by Stanford University found that people who eat and exercise according to their genetic predisposition tend to lose two-and-a-half times as much weight as compared to those who do not.
                                                                          • Approximately 74% of Native American, 90% of Asian Americans, 70% of African Americans and 53% of Mexican Americans are lactose intolerant. Research studies have also showed that there is a considerable reduction in lactase activity among people whose ancestry is from Greek, Italian, Arab, Asian, African, Hispanic or Jewish origin.
                                                                          • According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 43% of children and 38% of pregnant women suffer from iron deficiency, 1 in 6 women suffer from Vitamin A deficiency and 17.3% of the global population has Zinc deficiency.
                                                                          • Fast metabolizers of caffeine, who drank up to 3 cups of coffee per day, have almost 52% lower risk of heart attack as compared to slow metabolizers.
                                                                          • In this report, we profile genes that have been shown to influence nutritional traits like diet and weight management, micronutrient requirements, food intolerance and several other attributes relevant to nutritional well-being.

                                                                          We hope that this report will help you understand your body better and to align your diet to your genetic type to get the best results.

                                                                          How to read your report

                                                                          Human health is a complex interplay between genetics and the environment (lifestyle, diet, activity, stress and other factors). Your genes, training, diet and lifestyle, all play a vital role in your well-being.

                                                                          This report is presented in a user friendly language and format. The following tips will help you get the best information value out of the report.

                                                                          1. The word likely is used often in the report. What does it mean?

                                                                          People generally know that high cholesterol can lead to heart conditions. However, there are individuals with high cholesterol who do not develop heart disease. Similarly, smoking can lead to lung disease, but not always. Hence, certain genetic parameters can lead to certain outcomes but other factors may modify the outcome. likely means, it is more likely that one will see the outcome, but other factors may modify it.

                                                                          2. What does the term average mean in the report?

                                                                          Average implies neither high nor low, rather an intermediate outcome. For example, average likelihood of weight gain is an intermediate level between high and low likelihood. Average can also be understood in the context of normal or typical or moderate

                                                                          3. How do I know which result is applicable to me?

                                                                          Only results with a check mark or are applicable to you, the others are not applicable. All possible outcomes are provided in the table to provide a context to your outcome.

                                                                          4. Where did the information contained in the report come from?

                                                                          The genetic markers that are used in this report are based on scientific studies published in international journals. A list of references is available for you to read on our web blog.

                                                                          5. Some sentences are colored in green and others in red, why?

                                                                          Attributes that are advantageous in nutritional well-being are indicated in green and those that are not advantageous are in red. Moderate or Neutral outcomes are indicated in black.

                                                                          6. In the vitamins and Micro Nutrient section, what does normal intake indicate?

                                                                          Normal intake refers to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of the specific vitamin or mineral.

                                                                          Your Summary Results

                                                                          Trait Name Your Result Outcomes
                                                                          Tendency To Gain Weight

                                                                          A genetic tendency for higher weight gain due to increased energy storage Learn more

                                                                          Moderately likely to gain weight
                                                                          Tendency To Overeat

                                                                          A genetic tendency to over consume foods due to increased craving Learn more

                                                                          Moderately likely to overeat
                                                                          Tendency To Prefer Fatty Foods

                                                                          A genetic tendency for lower fat taste perception and overconsumption of fatty foods Learn more

                                                                          Highly likely to overconsume high fat foods
                                                                          Tendency To Prefer Sweet Foods

                                                                          A genetic tendency for lower sweet taste perception and overconsumption of sweet foods Learn more

                                                                          Highly likely to overconsume sweet foods
                                                                          Tendency To Prefer Bitter Foods

                                                                          A genetic tendency for high bitter taste perception and low intake of bitter vegetables Learn more

                                                                          Normal bitter vegetable preference
                                                                          Carbohydrate Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                                                                          A genetic tendency for increased weight gain upon higher carb intake Learn more

                                                                          Highly likely to gain weight on high carb intake
                                                                          Saturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                                                                          A genetic tendency for higher weight gain upon higher sat fat intake Learn more

                                                                          Less likely to gain weight on high SFA intake
                                                                          Mono Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                                                                          A genetic tendency for weight gain upon higher MUFA intake Learn more

                                                                          Highly likely to gain weight with high MUFA intake
                                                                          Poly Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                                                                          A genetic tendency for weight gain upon higher PUFA intake Learn more

                                                                          Highly likely to gain weight with high PUFA intake
                                                                          Protein Intake And Weight Loss Tendency

                                                                          A genetic tendency for increased weight loss upon higher protein intake Learn more

                                                                          Highly likely to lose weight on high protein intake
                                                                          Fibre Intake And Weight Loss Tendency

                                                                          A genetic tendency for increased weight loss upon higher fibre intake Learn more

                                                                          Likely to lose weight on high fibre intake
                                                                          Tendency To Regain Weight

                                                                          A genetic tendency for rapid weight regain after a weight loss program Learn more

                                                                          Less likely to regain weight after weight loss
                                                                          Vitamin A Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin A due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin A Learn more

                                                                          Moderately increase vitamin A intake
                                                                          Vitamin B12 Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin B12 due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin B12 Learn more

                                                                          Significantly increase vitamin B12 intake
                                                                          Vitamin B6 Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin B6 due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin B6 Learn more

                                                                          Maintain normal Vitamin B6 intake
                                                                          Vitamin B9 Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin B9 due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin B9 Learn more

                                                                          Maintain normal Vitamin B9 intake
                                                                          Vitamin C Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin C due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin C Learn more

                                                                          Maintain normal Vitamin C intake
                                                                          Vitamin D Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin D due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin D Learn more

                                                                          Maintain normal Vitamin D intake
                                                                          Vitamin E Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin E due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin E Learn more

                                                                          Moderately increase vitamin E intake
                                                                          Vitamin K Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Vitamin K due to inefficient metabolism of vitamin K Learn more

                                                                          Significantly increase vitamin K intake
                                                                          Calcium Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to need more or less of Calcium due to differences in metabolism of Calcium Learn more

                                                                          Maintain normal Calcium intake
                                                                          Choline Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Choline due to inefficient metabolism of Choline Learn more

                                                                          Moderately increase Choline intake
                                                                          Copper Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Copper due to inefficient metabolism of Copper Learn more

                                                                          Significantly increase Copper intake
                                                                          Iron Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Iron due to inefficient metabolism of Iron Learn more

                                                                          Moderately increase Iron intake
                                                                          Magnesium Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Magnesium due to inefficient metabolism of Magnesium Learn more

                                                                          Significantly increase Magnesium intake
                                                                          Phosphate Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Phosphate due to inefficient metabolism of Phosphate Learn more

                                                                          Maintain normal Phosphate intake
                                                                          Zinc Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Zinc due to inefficient metabolism of Zinc Learn more

                                                                          Moderately increase Zinc intake
                                                                          Selenium Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Selenium due to inefficient metabolism of Selenium Learn more

                                                                          Maintain normal Selenium intake
                                                                          Antioxidant Needs

                                                                          A genetic tendency to require more Antioxidants due to inefficient metabolism of Antioxidants Learn more

                                                                          Moderately increase antioxidants intake
                                                                          Caffeine Consumption

                                                                          A genetic tendency for variation in caffeine consumption due to difference in preference Learn more

                                                                          Likely to consume less caffeine
                                                                          Caffeine Metabolism

                                                                          A genetic tendency for variation in caffeine clearance due to varied metabolism Learn more

                                                                          Likely to be a slow metabolizer of caffeine
                                                                          Gluten Sensitivity

                                                                          A genetic tendency for variation in response to gluten due to varied sensitivity Learn more

                                                                          Unlikely to be gluten sensitive
                                                                          Lactose Intolerance

                                                                          A genetic tendency for difference in response to lactose due to varied tolerance Learn more

                                                                          Less likely to be lactose intolerant
                                                                          Salt Intake And Blood Pressure Sensitivity

                                                                          A genetic tendency for lower blood pressure due to salt sensitivity Learn more

                                                                          Highly likely to have lower BP on low salt diet
                                                                          Riboflavin And Blood Pressure Response

                                                                          A genetic tendency for lower blood pressure on increased riboflavin intake Learn more

                                                                          Less likely to have lower BP on high Riboflavin intake
                                                                          Alcohol Flush

                                                                          A genetic tendency for variation in response to alcohol intake due to reduced clearance of acetaldehyde Learn more

                                                                          Moderately likely to experience alcohol flush

                                                                          Tendency To Gain Weight

                                                                          Moderately likely to gain weight

                                                                          People of certain genetic type have more of a tendency to gain weight than others due to their genetic makeup. Genes that regulate metabolic rate, energy expenditure and energy storage influence the tendency to store calories versus expending calories. Certain genes that once offered a survival advantage to our ancestors by storing calories for leaner times have now become liabilities in the age of surplus food availability. Your genetic profile influences the tendency of your body to store or expend more calories.

                                                                          Recommendations:

                                                                          • You have a moderate genetic tendency to gain weight.
                                                                          • Ensure a healthy balance between energy intake and physical activity to maintain a healthy weight.
                                                                          • Genes Amalyzed: TMEM18, UCP2, PCSK1, GNPDA2, ADIPOQ, SH2B1, STK33, MC4R, LEP, MAF, NEGR1, ADRB1, SEC16B, BDNF, ADRB2, ETV5, UCP3, MTCH2, KCTD15, FTO, ADRB21

                                                                            Tendency To Overeat

                                                                            Moderately likely to overeat

                                                                            People of certain genetic type have more of a tendency to over consume foods. We analyze genes that are known to influence various hunger and satiety hormones such as Leptin, Ghrelin and Neuropeptides, which influence neurological aspects of feeding, producing effects such as persistent hunger, excessive snacking, preference for high calorific food and emotional eating.

                                                                            Recommendations:

                                                                            • You may have a moderate genetic tendency to overeat.
                                                                            • Practice mindful eating and eat high fibre or high protein snacks to increase feeling of fullness
                                                                            • Genes Amalyzed: TAS2R38, DRD2, FTO, CLOCK, MC4R

                                                                              Tendency To Prefer Fatty Foods

                                                                              Highly likely to overconsume high fat foods

                                                                              People of certain genetic type tend to over consume fatty foods due to a lower ability to perceive fats. In studies, people with lower fat perception ability were found to rate the fat content of food consistently lower than the actual fat content. Eating high quantities of fatty food can lead to weight gain and other health conditions.

                                                                              Recommendations:

                                                                              • You may have a decreased genetic ability to taste fats and are more likely to consume high fat foods.
                                                                              • Consciously reduce intake of high fat food, especially fried and oily foods.
                                                                              • Look for 0 g trans fat on the Nutrition Facts label and no oils in the ingredients list
                                                                              • Genes Amalyzed: CD361

                                                                                Tendency To Prefer Sweet Foods

                                                                                Highly likely to overconsume sweet foods

                                                                                People of certain genetic type tend to over consume sweet foods due to low sensitivity to sweet taste, either due to lesser number or reduced sensitivity of sweet taste receptors on their tongue. Sugary foods are rich in calories and can cause insulin resistance, leading to weight gain and other health conditions.

                                                                                Recommendations:

                                                                                • You may have decreased genetic sweet taste sensitivity and are more likely to consume sweets.
                                                                                • Consciously reduce intake of sweets.
                                                                                • High sugar intake increases risk for obesity and diabetes.
                                                                                • Snack on dry fruits, fruits and green leafy vegetables to reduce sugar cravings.
                                                                                • Drink plenty of water.
                                                                                • Genes Amalyzed: TAS2R38, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, TAS2R381, TAS1R31, TAS2R382, TAS1R21, GLUT2

                                                                                  Tendency To Prefer Bitter Foods

                                                                                  Normal bitter vegetable preference

                                                                                  Bitter taste perception is due to genetic variations in taste receptors. When food is chewed in the mouth, molecules such as phenylthiocarbamide bind to the taste receptors present in the tongue, which gives rise to the bitter taste. People of certain genetic type tend to avoid bitter vegetables due to higher sensitivity to bitter taste. Vegetables are low calorie and high fibre foods, which help in weight management and have several health benefits.

                                                                                  Recommendations:

                                                                                  • You may have a genetic tendency to prefer bitter vegetables which could be due to moderate sensitivity to bitter taste.
                                                                                  • Add natural sweeteners, lemon juice or spices to flavor bitter tasting green leafy vegetables, be creative with vegetable preparations.
                                                                                  • Bitter foods help absorb nutrients,reduce sugar cravings and balance appetite.
                                                                                  • Eat vegetables and fruits of different colors
                                                                                  • Genes Amalyzed: TAS2R38, TAS2R382, TAS2R381

                                                                                    Carbohydrate Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                                                                                    Highly likely to gain weight on high carb intake

                                                                                    Carbohydrates are the main sources of energy and they provide the kilocalories for weight maintenance. 45-65% of total calories are the recommended intake of carbohydrates with starch and sugars being the major carbohydrates. Corn, rice, potatoes, pasta and breads are sources of starch. Fruits and fruit juices have natural sugars while desserts, candies and soft drinks have added sugar. Carbs are considered as weight increasing foods, but that's not true for everyone. People of certain genetic type tend to gain more weight upon consuming carbohydrate rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by reducing the amount of carbs in their diet. Eat a balanced diet. Choose complex carbohydrates such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grain.

                                                                                    Recommendations:

                                                                                    • You may have a high genetic risk for weight gain on a high carbohydrate diet.
                                                                                    • Keep a limit on the amount of carbohydrates (<60%) (and fat) you consume.
                                                                                    • Avoid white rice & flour; avoid packaged, sugary drinks; avoid sweets as they significantly increase calorie intake
                                                                                    • Genes Amalyzed: FTO, SEC16B, FLJ35779, TCF7L2, LRRN6C, FAIM2, RBJ, FTO1

                                                                                      Saturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                                                                                      Less likely to gain weight on high SFA intake

                                                                                      Saturated fats are a type of fat that are largely solid at room temperature as they are saturated with hydrogen molecules. Meat and dairy products are rich sources of saturated fats. A high intake of saturated fats is associated with an increase in LDL cholesterol levels in the body. The American Heart Association recommends no more than 5-6% of calories from saturated fat from the daily diet. People of certain genetic type tend to gain more weight upon consuming saturated fat rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by reducing the amount of saturated fats in their diets

                                                                                      Recommendations:

                                                                                      • You may have a genetic tendency to have a lower BMI on a high fat diet.
                                                                                      • Limit the consumption of saturated fat sources in the diet (butter, ghee, lard, margarine) Choose low fat, non-fried dishes when dining out.
                                                                                      • Choose baked or steamed or grilled method of cooking
                                                                                      • Genes Amalyzed: APOA2, FTO

                                                                                        Mono Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                                                                                        Highly likely to gain weight with high MUFA intake

                                                                                        Monounsaturated fatty acids include omega-7 and omega 9 fatty acids. They are associated with anti-inflammatory properties, lowering blood pressure, maintaining triglyceride levels. MUFAs are also found to benefit skin health as they balance water levels and provide ceramides for skin renewal. The Mediterranean diet is rich in MUFA. People of certain genetic type tend to gain weight upon consuming MUFA rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by balancing the amount of MUFA in their diets. Given that MUFA is beneficial for overall health and particularly heart health, individuals with the weight gain genotype can increase the amount of exercise to compensate for the increased risk of weight gain.

                                                                                        Recommendations:

                                                                                        • You may have a genetic tendency for higher BMI on a high MUFA diet.
                                                                                        • Include MUFA rich food sources in moderation.
                                                                                        • Olive oil, avocado, olives, almonds, peanuts are rich in MUFA.
                                                                                        • Though a diet rich in MUFA might not help in weight maintenance, it is recommended to include MUFA rich foods in the diet to improve heart health.
                                                                                        • Weight gain can be prevented by increasing physical activity
                                                                                        • Genes Amalyzed: NR1D1, PPARG, ADIPOQ

                                                                                          Poly Unsaturated Fats Intake And Weight Gain Tendency

                                                                                          Highly likely to gain weight with high PUFA intake

                                                                                          Omega 3s are important for brain and heart health as they reduce blood pressure and triglyceride levels. They are also important for skin and vision health. Omega 6s help in bone health and in stimulating hair growth. People of certain genetic type tend to gain weight upon consuming PUFA rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by lowering the amount of PUFA in their diets or increasing physical activity. Importantly, targeting the Omega3: Omega6 ratio is recommended, with preference towards Omega 3.

                                                                                          Recommendations:

                                                                                          • You may have a genetic tendency for higher BMI on a high PUFA diet.
                                                                                          • Include PUFA rich food sources in moderation.
                                                                                          • Grapeseed oil, canola oil, soybean oil, chia seeds, tuna and mackerel are rich in PUFA.
                                                                                          • Though a diet rich in PUFA might not help in weight maintenance, it is recommended to include Omega3 rich foods in the diet to improve heart health.
                                                                                          • Weight gain can be prevented by increasing physical activity
                                                                                          • Genes Amalyzed: BDNF

                                                                                            Protein Intake And Weight Loss Tendency

                                                                                            Highly likely to lose weight on high protein intake

                                                                                            Protein is an important building block for bones, skin, blood, cartilage and muscles, and it is present in every cell in the body. Nails, hair, enzymes, hormones and other body chemicals consist of large amounts of protein. Moreover, our body utilises protein to build and repair tissues. People of certain genetic type tend to benefit more in terms of weight maintenance with high protein intake than others

                                                                                            Recommendations:

                                                                                            • You may have a genetic tendency to lose more weight on a high protein diet.
                                                                                            • Eat a diet rich in proteins.
                                                                                            • Include proteins in diet (eggs, chicken breast, tuna, cottage cheese, greek yogurt, almonds, oats, broccoli, quinoa) as they are highly satiating, leading to reduced hunger and appetite
                                                                                            • Genes Amalyzed: FTO

                                                                                              Fibre Intake And Weight Loss Tendency

                                                                                              Likely to lose weight on high fibre intake

                                                                                              Dietary fiber is found in whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes. It helps relieve constipation or prevent it while also helping in weight maintenance, reducing the risk for heart disease and diabetes. People of certain genetic type tend to benefit more in terms of weight loss with high fiber intake than others.

                                                                                              Recommendations:

                                                                                              • You may have a genetic tendency to lose moderate weight on a high fibre diet.
                                                                                              • Fibre rich food can result in weight loss by increasing the feeling of fullness thus leading to reduced calorie intake.
                                                                                              • Pear, apple, banana, carrot, beetroot, broccoli, lentils, chickpeas, oats and almonds are examples of fibre rich foods
                                                                                              • Genes Amalyzed: FTO2, FTO1, FTO3

                                                                                                Tendency To Regain Weight

                                                                                                Less likely to regain weight after weight loss

                                                                                                People of certain genetic type tend to quickly regain weight after having been on a weight loss program. These individuals need to continue adherence to exercise and diet program to maintain optimal weight.

                                                                                                Recommendations:

                                                                                                • You may have a genetic tendency for lower regain of weight after an interventional strategy.
                                                                                                • Though you have a low genetic tendency to regain weight, your lifestyle factors could contribute to weight regain.
                                                                                                • Do not skip breakfast as a good breakfast curbs hunger.
                                                                                                • Avoid processed food and sugar sweetened beverages.
                                                                                                • Maintain a balanced diet and include more of whole grains, nuts, fruits and vegetables to your diet.
                                                                                                • Genes Amalyzed: BDNF, PPARG, TFAP2B, ADIPOQ

                                                                                                  Vitamin A Needs

                                                                                                  Moderately increase vitamin A intake

                                                                                                  Vitamin A is required for clear vision, healthy skin and enhanced immunity. Animal sources provide Vitamin A in the form of retinol, while some plant sources provide the precursor of Vitamin A in the form of carotenes, which in turn must be converted to retinol. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin A in their diet due to less efficient conversion of carotenoids to retinol.

                                                                                                  Recommendations:

                                                                                                  • You may have a genetic tendency to have moderately low vitamin A levels.
                                                                                                  • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin A.
                                                                                                  • Measure serum Vitamin A level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                  • Include carrots, sweet potato, pumpkin, green leafy vegetables, parsley, basil, coriander, milk, fish and bell peppers in daily diet
                                                                                                  • Genes Amalyzed: BCM01, BCMO1, CYP26B1, PKD1L2

                                                                                                    Vitamin B12 Needs

                                                                                                    Significantly increase vitamin B12 intake

                                                                                                    Vitamin B12 is actively involved in red blood cell maturity and its deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia and general fatigue. It also helps in the removal of homocysteine from the cells. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B12 in their diet due to lower levels in the body.

                                                                                                    Recommendations:

                                                                                                    • You may have a genetic tendency for low vitamin B12 levels.
                                                                                                    • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin B12.
                                                                                                    • Measure serum Vitamin B12 level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                    • Vitamin B12 rich foods include fish and seafood.
                                                                                                    • Also seaweed, eggs, poultry, meat and dairy products provide this nutrient
                                                                                                    • Genes Amalyzed: TCN1, RASIP1, FUT2

                                                                                                      Vitamin B6 Needs

                                                                                                      Maintain normal Vitamin B6 intake

                                                                                                      Vitamin B6 is required for the proper utilization of sugars, fats and proteins in the body. It also protects the cells against glycation-induced damage. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B6 in their diet as they lack the ability to fully metabolize this vitamin leading to its low levels in the body.

                                                                                                      Recommendations:

                                                                                                      • You may have a genetic tendency for normal vitamin B6 levels.
                                                                                                      • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin B6.
                                                                                                      • Measure serum Vitamin B6 level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                      • Vitamin B6 rich foods include whole grain products, nuts and seeds, fish, pork and meat
                                                                                                      • Genes Amalyzed: ALPL1, NBPF3

                                                                                                        Vitamin B9 Needs

                                                                                                        Maintain normal Vitamin B9 intake

                                                                                                        Vitamin B9 or folate plays a major role in DNA synthesis and repair. It is also essential for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Excess accumulation of homocysteine can be harmful. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B9 in their diet due to lower folate levels and an inefficient enzymatic conversion of homocysteine to methionine.

                                                                                                        Recommendations:

                                                                                                        • You may have a genetic tendency for normal vitamin B9 levels.
                                                                                                        • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin B9.
                                                                                                        • Measure serum Vitamin B9 level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                        • Vitamin B9 rich foods include green leafy vegetables, dark coloured fruits (such as oranges, peaches, broccoli, papaya, grapefruit, strawberries, beans, peas, lentils, avocados, okra, sunflower seeds, peanuts, flaxseeds, almonds, cauliflower, corn, celery, carrots and fortified grains)
                                                                                                        • Genes Amalyzed: MTHFR

                                                                                                          Vitamin C Needs

                                                                                                          Maintain normal Vitamin C intake

                                                                                                          Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant and is essential for enhanced immunity. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin C in their diet due to lower levels in the body.

                                                                                                          Recommendations:

                                                                                                          • You may have a genetic tendency for normal vitamin C levels.
                                                                                                          • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin C.
                                                                                                          • Measure serum Vitamin C level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                          • Vitamin C rich foods include agathi, cabbage, coriander leaves, drumstick leaves, capsicum, guava, green chillies, orange and broccoli
                                                                                                          • Genes Amalyzed: SLC23A1

                                                                                                            Vitamin D Needs

                                                                                                            Maintain normal Vitamin D intake

                                                                                                            Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium from the intestine and also for enhanced immunity. Our body can synthesize sufficient Vitamin D from cholesterol when the skin is exposed to adequate amounts of sunlight. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin D in their diet due to its inefficient synthesis in our body.

                                                                                                            Recommendations:

                                                                                                            • You may have a genetic tendency for normal vitamin D levels.
                                                                                                            • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin D.
                                                                                                            • Include calcium rich foods in the diet to improve absorption of vitamin D.
                                                                                                            • Measure serum Vitamin D level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                            • Calcium rich food sources are chia seeds, beans, lentils, almonds, spinach, tofu, milk & milk products, eggs and mushrooms and finger millets.
                                                                                                            • Genes Amalyzed: GC, GC2, CYP27B1, CYP2R1, NADSYN1, VDR, GC1

                                                                                                              Vitamin E Needs

                                                                                                              Moderately increase vitamin E intake

                                                                                                              Vitamin E is an antioxidant and it defends our body against free radical damage and protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin E in their diet due to inefficient transport and lower plasma levels of Vitamin E.

                                                                                                              Recommendations:

                                                                                                              • You may have a genetic tendency for moderately low vitamin E levels.
                                                                                                              • Meet your daily requirements for Vitamin E.
                                                                                                              • Measure serum Vitamin E level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                              • Sunflower seeds, olive oil, wheat germ oil, spinach, avocados, almonds, broccoli and shrimps are rich in vitamin E
                                                                                                              • Genes Amalyzed: CYP4F2, CD36, intergenic, CD362, CD361, SCARB1, ZPR1

                                                                                                                Vitamin K Needs

                                                                                                                Significantly increase vitamin K intake

                                                                                                                Vitamin K plays an important role in helping blood clotting process and in preventing excessive bleeding. People of certain genetic type need enhanced Vitamin K supplementation to maintain adequate levels in blood.

                                                                                                                Recommendations:

                                                                                                                • You may have a genetic tendency for low vitamin K levels.
                                                                                                                • Meet your daily requirements for vitamin K.
                                                                                                                • Measure serum vitamin K level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                • Vitamin K rich foods include Brussels sprouts, cabbage, prunes, spring onions and green leafy vegetables.
                                                                                                                • Genes Amalyzed: GGCX, VKORC1

                                                                                                                  Calcium Needs

                                                                                                                  Maintain normal Calcium intake

                                                                                                                  Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, essential for maintaining the strength and structure of bones and teeth and certain metabolic functions. Both higher and lower calcium levels can have important consequences for health. People of certain genetic type tend to have higher serum calcium levels and can restrict their calcium intake.

                                                                                                                  Recommendations:

                                                                                                                  • You may have a genetic tendency for normal calcium levels.
                                                                                                                  • Meet your daily requirements for Calcium (1300mg per day)Measure serum calcium level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                  • For adults between 19 and 50 years of age, calcium intake should not exceed 2500mg per day.
                                                                                                                  • For adults older than 50 years, calcium intake should not exceed 2000 mg per day.
                                                                                                                  • Include calcium rich foods such as amaranth leaves, almonds, mustard seeds, sunflower seeds, finger millets, sesame seeds, broccoli and dairy (subject to lactose tolerance recommendation)
                                                                                                                  • Genes Amalyzed: DGKD, TTC39B, DGKD1, CASR1, GCKR, CYP24A1, CASR, WDR81, DGKH, GATA3, CARS

                                                                                                                    Choline Needs

                                                                                                                    Moderately increase Choline intake

                                                                                                                    Choline is a macronutrient which plays an important role in liver function, nerve function, normal brain development, muscle movement and in supporting a healthy metabolism. People with a genetic variant in the PEMT gene and other genes are likely to experience adverse health consequences when fed a low choline diet. Hence supplementation is recommended for such individuals.

                                                                                                                    Recommendations:

                                                                                                                    • You may have a genetic tendency for moderately low choline levels.
                                                                                                                    • Meet your daily requirements for choline.
                                                                                                                    • Measure serum choline level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                    • Choline rich foods include eggs, liver, meat, pasta and shellfish.
                                                                                                                    • Genes Amalyzed: MTHFD1, PEMT

                                                                                                                      Copper Needs

                                                                                                                      Significantly increase Copper intake

                                                                                                                      Copper is necessary for the absorption of iron, in the synthesis of haemoglobin and in the maintenance of connective tissue, brain, heart and other organs. People of certain genetic types need more copper.

                                                                                                                      Recommendations:

                                                                                                                      • You may have a genetic tendency for low copper levels.
                                                                                                                      • Meet your daily requirements for copper.
                                                                                                                      • Measure serum copper level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                      • Copper rich foods include sunflower seeds, almonds, dried apricots, dark chocolates and lentils.
                                                                                                                      • Genes Amalyzed: SELENBP1, SMIM1

                                                                                                                        Iron Needs

                                                                                                                        Moderately increase Iron intake

                                                                                                                        Iron is essential for oxygen transport through the blood. Its deficiency leads to anemia. People of certain genetic type need more iron in their diet as they have reduced ability to absorb iron from the diet.

                                                                                                                        Recommendations:

                                                                                                                        • You may have a genetic tendency for moderately low iron levels.
                                                                                                                        • Meet your daily requirements for iron.
                                                                                                                        • Men should consume 8 mg per day, women between 19 and 50 years should consume 18 mg per day and women over 50 years should consume 5 mg per day.
                                                                                                                        • Measure serum iron level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                        • Iron rich foods include amaranth leaves, spinach, beans, lentils, chickpeas, peas, soybeans, liver, turkey, pumpkin seeds, broccoli, tofu and dark chocolate
                                                                                                                        • Genes Amalyzed: TF, SLC17A1, TMPRRS6, TMPRRS61, TFR2

                                                                                                                          Magnesium Needs

                                                                                                                          Significantly increase Magnesium intake

                                                                                                                          Magnesium helps in maintaining normal nerve and muscle function and helps maintain strong bones. It is also important for regulating blood glucose levels and in the production of energy and amino acids.

                                                                                                                          Recommendations:

                                                                                                                          • You may have a genetic tendency for low magnesium levels.
                                                                                                                          • Meet your daily requirements for magnesium.
                                                                                                                          • Measure serum magnesium level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                          • Magnesium rich foods include dark leafy greens, nuts, fish, whole grains, avocados and yogurt.
                                                                                                                          • Genes Amalyzed: DCDC5, MUC1, MDS1, SHROOM3, HOXD9, CASR

                                                                                                                            Phosphate Needs

                                                                                                                            Maintain normal Phosphate intake

                                                                                                                            Phosphate is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth and is also used as a building block for several important molecules including DNA. People of certain genetic type need more phosphate in their diet as they have decreased phosphate levels in blood.

                                                                                                                            Recommendations:

                                                                                                                            • You may have a genetic tendency for normal phosphate levels.
                                                                                                                            • Meet your daily requirements for phosphate.
                                                                                                                            • Measure serum phosphate level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                            • Phosphate rich foods include pumpkin seeds, brazil nuts, salmons and shellfish
                                                                                                                            • Genes Amalyzed: TKT, CASR

                                                                                                                              Zinc Needs

                                                                                                                              Moderately increase Zinc intake

                                                                                                                              Zinc plays an important role in the proper functioning of the immune system, cell division, cell growth and in the breakdown of carbohydrates. Zinc is also important for the senses of taste and smell.

                                                                                                                              Recommendations:

                                                                                                                              • You may have a genetic tendency for moderately low zinc levels.
                                                                                                                              • Meet your daily requirements for zinc.
                                                                                                                              • Measure serum zinc level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                              • Zinc rich foods include flax seeds, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, watermelon seeds and beef
                                                                                                                              • Genes Amalyzed: Il6, NBDY, CA1

                                                                                                                                Selenium Needs

                                                                                                                                Maintain normal Selenium intake

                                                                                                                                Selenium helps in the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and in maintaining a healthy immune system. People of certain genetic type may benefit from selenium supplementation.

                                                                                                                                Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                • You may have a genetic tendency for normal selenium levels.
                                                                                                                                • Meet your daily requirements for selenium.
                                                                                                                                • Measure serum selenium level, if below normal even after meeting RDA requirements; consult a physician.
                                                                                                                                • Selenium rich foods brazil nuts, yellow fin tuna, turkey, chicken, white button mushrooms and brown rice.
                                                                                                                                • Genes Amalyzed: CBS

                                                                                                                                  Antioxidant Needs

                                                                                                                                  Moderately increase antioxidants intake

                                                                                                                                  Antioxidants play a key role in reducing the ill effects of 'free radicals' and thereby preventing premature aging, tissue damage and the onset of chronic diseases. They are present in many vegetables, fruits, cereals, green tea, etc. People of certain genetic type have lower efficiency to defend themselves against free radical damage and hence require more antioxidants in their diet.

                                                                                                                                  Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                  • You may have a genetic tendency to require moderately more antioxidants.
                                                                                                                                  • Increase intake of foods rich in antioxidants.
                                                                                                                                  • Optimum level of antioxidants reduces mortality risk.
                                                                                                                                  • Foods rich in antioxidants are purple, red and blue grapes, blueberries, nuts, green leafy vegetables, sweet potato, carrots, whole grains and beans
                                                                                                                                  • Genes Amalyzed: GPX1, PON11, NAT1, SOD2, CAT, PON1

                                                                                                                                    Caffeine Consumption

                                                                                                                                    Likely to consume less caffeine

                                                                                                                                    People of certain genetic type tend to consume more cups of coffee (>625mg of caffeine) a day. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and the most widely consumed psychoactive drug. Increased coffee consumption has been linked to improved health benefits for fast metabolizers of caffeine. Slow metabolizers are prone to increased risk of heart disease with higher caffeine intake.

                                                                                                                                    Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                    • You have a genetic tendency to consume less caffeine.
                                                                                                                                    • Genes Amalyzed: EFCAB5, ABCG2, AHR, CYP1A2, CYP1A1, MLXIPL, GKCR, BDNF, AHR1

                                                                                                                                      Caffeine Metabolism

                                                                                                                                      Likely to be a slow metabolizer of caffeine

                                                                                                                                      People of certain genetic type are slow metabolizers of caffeine and may experience symptoms such as palpitations and anxiety upon consuming more than 1 to 2 cups of coffee a day. These individuals may also be at a higher risk of heart disease with increased coffee intake.

                                                                                                                                      Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                      • You have a genetic tendency to be a slow metabolizer.
                                                                                                                                      • Restrict coffee intake up to 2 cups a day.
                                                                                                                                      • Choose decaffeinated coffee and other low caffeine beverages.
                                                                                                                                      • May be at higher risk of heart attack when more than 2 cups of coffee are consumed everyday.
                                                                                                                                      • Drink green tea instead.
                                                                                                                                      • Caffeine is present in coffee, energy drinks, in colas and a variety of other foods and beverages.
                                                                                                                                      • Genes Amalyzed: CYP1A2

                                                                                                                                        Gluten Sensitivity

                                                                                                                                        Unlikely to be gluten sensitive

                                                                                                                                        People of certain genetic type may have lower tolerance to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. Some people experience symptoms like abdominal cramps, bloating, �foggy mind�, depression, headaches, pain in the bone or joint, diarrhea or constipation and chronic fatigue when they have gluten in their diet but may not test positive for serological determination of celiac disease. When gluten is removed from their diet, these symptoms subside, this condition is known as gluten sensitivity. In some cases (~1% of western population), it may lead to celiac disease.

                                                                                                                                        Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                        • You do not carry the genetic markers associated with gluten sensitivity.
                                                                                                                                        • Unless advised by your physician, you can continue regular consumption of gluten based products
                                                                                                                                        • Genes Amalyzed: HLA DQ2.2 (M2), HLA DQ 8, HLA DQ2.2 (M3), HLA-DQ 2.5, HLA DQ2.2 (M1)

                                                                                                                                          Lactose Intolerance

                                                                                                                                          Less likely to be lactose intolerant

                                                                                                                                          People of certain genetic type stop producing the enzyme lactase in late childhood. Lactase is needed to breakdown the sugar lactose present in milk. These individuals may experience gastrointestinal symptoms upon consuming large quantities of milk as adults.

                                                                                                                                          Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                          • You are less likely to be lactose intolerant.
                                                                                                                                          • Include dairy products in the diet.
                                                                                                                                          • Include milk and other dairy products as sources of calcium, vitamin D and milk protein
                                                                                                                                          • Genes Amalyzed: MCM6

                                                                                                                                            Salt Intake And Blood Pressure Sensitivity

                                                                                                                                            Highly likely to have lower BP on low salt diet

                                                                                                                                            Sodium is an essential electrolyte present in the extra cellular fluid. It regulates osmosis and maintains fluid levels within the cell and it also plays an important role in enzyme functions and contraction of muscles. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends not more than 2300 mg of salt per day; however, most people eat too much salt. On an average 3400 mg of salt is consumed with most of it coming from processed foods. People of certain genetic type will have higher blood pressure in response to high salt consumption. Nearly 50% of hypertensive people are salt-sensitive, which is associated with a rise in BP with salt intake. These individuals will tend to reduce BP with lower salt intake, which is recommended.

                                                                                                                                            Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                            • People with your genetic type show a greater reduction in blood pressure levels on a low salt diet.
                                                                                                                                            • Reduce salt intake to about a teaspoon of salt per day.
                                                                                                                                            • Limit high salt content food (canned, processed, baked, salt-dried and pickled foods).
                                                                                                                                            • Even sweet tasting food can have high salt content, check the food labels carefully.
                                                                                                                                            • Consider adding spices and herbs such as oregano, rosemary, mint, parsley, garlic and ginger for favour instead of salt.
                                                                                                                                            • Potassium rich foods (banana, sweet potato, spinach, apple, orange, cabbage) help regulate blood pressure.
                                                                                                                                            • Genes Amalyzed: ACE, NPPA, CYP11B2, AGT, SGK1

                                                                                                                                              Riboflavin And Blood Pressure Response

                                                                                                                                              Less likely to have lower BP on high Riboflavin intake

                                                                                                                                              Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a water soluble vitamin. Nerves and brain need riboflavin to function properly. It is also required for healthy skin, hair, eyes and liver. people of certain genetic types will have lower blood pressure in response to high riboflavin intake.

                                                                                                                                              Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                              • You have a genetic tendency to have no effect on blood pressure on increased intake of riboflavin.
                                                                                                                                              • Though blood pressure levels are not affected by increasing intake of riboflavin, its deficiency can lead to symptoms like burning mouth, angular cheilitis, anemia, and vision problem.
                                                                                                                                              • Include foods rich in riboflavin like eggs, liver, dairy products and enriched flour in your diet to ensure optimum level of vitamin B2 in the body.
                                                                                                                                              • Genes Amalyzed: MTHFR

                                                                                                                                                Alcohol Flush

                                                                                                                                                Moderately likely to experience alcohol flush

                                                                                                                                                People of certain genetic type may experience symptoms like redness of the face and neck upon consuming alcohol due to reduced clearance of acetaldehyde which is produced in the body upon consuming alcohol. Though alcohol avoidance per limitation is recommended for all, people with the alcohol flush genotype may be at higher health risk upon alcohol consumption

                                                                                                                                                Recommendations:

                                                                                                                                                • you have a moderate genetic tendency to experience alcohol flush.
                                                                                                                                                • Reduce or limit alcohol consumption.
                                                                                                                                                • A study showed that if moderate to heavy drinkers shifted to light drinking, 53% of esophageal cancers might be prevented.
                                                                                                                                                • Intake of anti-histamines prior to alcohol consumption has been shown to lower flushing symptoms.
                                                                                                                                                • Genes Amalyzed: ALDH2

                                                                                                                                                  Disclaimer

                                                                                                                                                  Xcode provides genetic assessment services for informational use only and Xcode's reports should be interpreted or used exclusively by professional practitioners including but not limited to certified physicians, dietitians, nutritionists, sports therapists and others in similar profession (Professional Practitioners). Xcode does not provide any direct or indirect medical advice to individual patients and this report is to be interpreted only by a qualified medical or health services professional in order to provide relevant healthcare advice.

                                                                                                                                                  Genetic information must always be considered in conjunction with other information about your health such as lifestyle, family history, risk factors, biomedical data, diet, nutrition and physical activity among several other factors. Gene mutation is not the only factor that influences the health conditions or outcomes and there are several factors other than your genes such as the environment and lifestyle that may influence your health outcome. You are responsible to ascertain that your Professional Practitioner is qualified to consider the genetic information indicated in this report in conjunction with all other information made available to him/her about you including your family health history, lifestyle, bio-medical data and any other information that you may provide to the Professional Practitioner. Xcode shall not be held responsible for any misinterpretation by your Professional Practitioner of this Report or for any matter arising out of this report.

                                                                                                                                                  Only full genome sequences are exhaustive. All other forms of genetic tests only provide a limited subset of genetic information that has been found to be relevant to specific conditions. Since this report is not generated by conducting a whole genome sequence test, the results reported are limited to a specific set of mutations known to be associated with specific conditions. Genetic information is also subject to revisions based on the latest advances in scientific research. Therefore, it is possible that the interpretation of results reported herein may vary or be altered subject to ongoing research. Sometimes, the interpretations may vary from company to company based on which studies are being given a higher preference compared to others.

                                                                                                                                                  Xcode's role is limited to providing results of genetic test and providing a broad set of general recommendations. More detailed recommendations that may be specific to you are to be made by a qualified Professional Practitioners only. General guidelines provided in our report are for information purpose only and strictly not for medical or clinical use. While assessing your genetic parameters and providing the report and recommendations, we do not consider your past or existing health conditions and or any medication taken by you (either in the past or currently), even if you have provided us with such information. Our report and the recommendations therein are to be acted upon only under the advice and supervision of a qualified medical or health and wellness professional practitioner.

                                                                                                                                                  Your reliance upon the report is solely at your own discretion. As with all health and medical related matters, you should exercise adequate care in using the information provided in this report or on our website. Xcode disclaims any responsibility for any errors and/or omissions by you or other persons either during collection of DNA samples or delivery of the DNA sample to Xcode. We make no warranties of any kind, either express or implied, including, without limitation, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, accuracy and non- infringement. The information in this report is for informational purposes only, and not for medical or clinical use

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